What Does the First Article of the Constitution Say

After the election of the first group of senators to the First Congress (1789-1791), senators were divided into three “classes” as large as possible in this section. This was done in May 1789 by drawing lots. It was also decided that senators from each state should be assigned to two different classes. The terms of office of senators, who were grouped in the first class, expired after only two years; These second-class senators had expired their terms after only four years instead of six years. After that, all senators from those states were elected for six-year terms, and when new states joined the Union, their Senate seats were allocated to two of the three classes, with each group remaining as large as possible. In this way, the election is staggered; About a third of the Senate is re-elected every two years, but the entire body is never re-elected in the same year (unlike the House of Representatives, where all of its members are re-elected every 2 years). Neither Chamber may adjourn for more than three days without the consent of the other. Often, a house organizes pro forma sessions every three days; These meetings are held only to comply with constitutional requirements and not to conduct business. In addition, neither house can meet without the consent of the other house in a place other than the one intended for both houses (the Capitol). The U.S.

Supreme Court has sometimes declared New Deal programs unconstitutional because they broadened the meaning of the trade clause. In der Rechtssache Schechter Poultry Corp. V United States, (1935) The Court unanimously repealed the laws of the industry governing the slaughter of poultry, declaring that Congress could not regulate the trade in poultry, which “had come to permanent rest in the state.” As Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes put it, “With respect to the poultry in question, the flow of interstate trade has stopped.” Court rulings against the attempt to use Congressional powers over the trade clause continued into the 1930s. The principle of the separation of powers with respect to Congress is particularly noteworthy. Although the Supreme Court did not have an opportunity to interpret this specific provision, the Court proposed that granting the Chamber the “sole” power of impeachment make the Chamber the exclusive interpreter of what constitutes an impugned offence. [34] Section Nine reiterates the provision in Section Two, Section 3, that direct taxes must be shared by the population of the State. This clause was also expressly protected from constitutional amendments by Article V before 1808. In 1913, the 16th Amendment exempted all income taxes from this clause. This overcame the decision in Pollock v. Farmers` Loan & Trust Co. that income tax could only be applied to regular income and not to dividends and capital gains.

In addition, no tax may be levied on exports from a country. Congress cannot, through tax or trade laws, privilege the ports of one state over those of another; It may also not require ships of one State to pay customs duties in another. All funds belonging to the Ministry of Finance may be withdrawn only in accordance with the law. Modern practice dictates that Congress passes a series of budget laws each year that authorize the use of public funds. The Constitution requires that a regular statement of such expenditure be published […].